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Sudachi ichandrin (papeda hybrid)

Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai

Citrus ichangensis X C. reticulata var. austere

CRC 3471

PI 539676

VI 693

sudachisudachisudachi

Photos by David Karp, CVC, 11/2009. Photo rights.

sudachisudachisudachi

Photos by David Karp, CVC, 11/2009. Photo rights.

SUDACHIsudachisudachiSUDACHI

Photos by Toni Siebert and David Karp, CVC, 11/2009. Photo rights.

Source: Received as seed from Dr. W.P. Bitters, 1963.

 

Parentage/origins: Sudachi is thought to be a hybrid of C. ichangensis and C. reticulata. This accession came from Okitsu, Shizuoka Pref., Japan.

Rootstocks of accession: Carrizo citrange, C-35 citrange

 

Season of ripeness at Riverside: When used for cooking purposes, Sudachi is harvested while still green which occurs during September to October.

 

Notes and observations:

11/2009, TJS: "Thought to be a hybrid of a papeda and a mandarin, Sudachi arose as a chance seedling in the Tokushima Prefecture of Japan, on Shikoku island, where it has traditionally been grown (Kawada, 1986). When harvested young, Sudachi is considered to have a distinctive fragrance that is different from Yuzu. The young fruits are used for cooking while still green, often being incorporated into vinegars or flavoring many different entrees, especially fish (Bitters, 1963). In dishes that utilize Sudachi, it is customary for the fruit to be sliced into thin wedges, adorning the main course. The flavor is now also used in soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. The fruits are produced for both processing and fresh fruit markets, with such demand that specialized storage systems were created to extend the market season (Kawada, 1992).
                     Fruit of Sudachi was formally evaluated by the UCR Citrus Variety Collection in September and October of the years 2003 to 2007 at Riverside, Calif. Significantly smaller than Yuzu, the average fruit size has a mean width of 3.8 cm (1.5 inches) and a height of 3.4 cm (1.3 inches), giving an average height-to-width ratio of 0.90 and an oblate shape, although some fruits can be round. Sudachi has a mean weight per fruit of 27.2 grams (0.96 ounces). Color break was reached between the first and third week of September. The rind texture is slightly pebbly with a mean thickness of 1.9 mm (0.07 inches). The number of seeds per fruit averages 9.1, much less than the average Yuzu fruit. The mean juice weight is 9.6 grams (0.34 ounces) and the average juice content is 34.4%, higher than Yuzu, which is fitting as Sudachi is primarily used for juice. The juice weight and juice content increased during the sampling dates. The internal flesh color of Sudachi in the green stage is light green to green-yellow.  Sudachi is slightly more acidic than Yuzu with an average of 5% citric acid.
                     Sudachi trees tend to have a spreading habit of moderate vigor, but can be considered a small- to medium-sized tree, as 26-year-old trees on Carrizo and C-35 citrange rootstocks are only approximately 8 feet tall, with no indications of rootstock-scion incompatibility. Thorns up to 5 mm in length are present in each leaf axil. Leaves are elliptical in shape, with a small-winged petiole. The tree canopy has dense branching. "

1961, TT: A Yuzu relative that may be worth calling "Mandarin-Junos" of Japan which is exclusively used for acid juice. Few seeds, rind 3.5 mm thick.

1963, WPB: Small fruit somewhat resembling Yuzu. Fruit is reddish-orange, leaves similar to Yuzu, resistance of sudachi to citrus canker is good & gummosis resistance is good. Highly resistant to citrus root borer. Growth is slow, may have dwarfing characteristics. Trees are long-lived. Sudachi is an acid citrus; it bears small fruit (20-25 g) and is traditionally grown in Tokushima Prefecture (Japan). The fruit are harvested only at the green stage and are served in cut halves as a garnish. Polyembryonic.

2/26/1988, EMN: Tree with extremely large crop of marble-shaped fruits. Way past maturity now but still on tree; mummies from past year indicate that the fruit never drop.

 

Availability: Commerically available in California through the Citrus Clonal Protection Program.

USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network page for Sudachi

 

Bibliography:

Citrograph 72(2): 29-30,32, Dec. 1986

Citrologia, pg. 80, Univ. Osaka, Japan, 1961

"Molecular characterization and genetic diversity among Japanese acid citrus (Citrus spp.) based on RAPD markers", Abkenar, A., and Isshiki, S., Journal of Horticulture Science and Biotechnology, 2003, (78) 1, pgs. 108-112.

"Deliciously ancient East Asian acid citrus: Yuzu, Sudachi and Kabosu", Siebert, T., and Kahn, T., Fruit Gardener, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2009, pgs 2-8.

"Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program", Siebert, T., Krueger, R., Kahn, T., Bash, J., Vidalakis, G., Citrograph, March/April 2010, pgs 20-26.

CVC fruit quality data for Sudachi ichandrin:

(Old format)

CULTIVAR SAMPLE LOCATION DATE  NUMBER OF FRUIT PER SAMPLE TOTAL LENGTH PER SAMPLE (cm) MEAN LENGTH PER FRUIT (cm) TOTAL WIDTH PER SAMPLE (cm) MEAN WIDTH PER FRUIT (cm) LENGTH /WIDTH RATIO TOTAL WT PER SAMPLE (grams) MEAN WEIGHT PER FRUIT (grams) EXTERNAL COLOR BASED ON COLOR CHART TEXTURE BASED ON CHART TOTAL RIND THICKNESS PER SAMPLE (mm) MEAN RIND THICKNESS PER FRUIT TOTAL SEEDS PER SAMPLE MEAN SEED NUMBER PER FRUIT INTERIOR COLOR DESCRIPTION TOTAL JUICE WT. PER SAMPLE (grams) MEAN JUICE WEIGHT PER FRUIT (grams) % JUICE TSS (TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS) % ACID (BASED ON CITRIC ACID) RATIO (TSS / % ACID) 
Sudachi Riverside 9/8/2003 10 30.5 3.1 33.9 3.4 0.9 204.8 20.5 3.5 2.0 13.0 1.3 110.0 11.0 LIGHT GREEN 56.3 5.6 27.5 10.1 3.7 2.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/8/2003 10 25.7 2.6 31.2 3.1 0.8 149.3 14.9 3.5 2.0 12.0 1.2 74.0 7.4 LIGHT GREEN 43.8 4.4 29.3 11.2 4.0 2.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/7/2004 10 30.8 3.1 34.0 3.4 0.9 192.6 19.3 4.0 1.5 20.0 2.0 98.0 9.8 LIGHT. GREEN 59.4 5.9 30.8 11.5 3.5 3.3
Sudachi Riverside 9/7/2004 10 34.7 3.5 37.2 3.7 0.9 265.8 26.6 4.0 1.5 20.0 2.0 116.0 11.6 LIGHT. GREEN 78.7 7.9 29.6 9.8 3.6 2.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/6/2005 10 33.5 3.4 37.4 3.7 0.9 257.6 25.8 4.0 3.0 17.0 1.7 75.0 7.5 LIGHT GREEN 86.0 8.6 33.4 10.5 5.9 1.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/6/2005 10 29.9 3.0 35.7 3.6 0.8 205.2 20.5 3.5 3.0 14.0 1.4 107.0 10.7 LIGHT GREEN 65.8 6.6 32.1 11.3 5.3 2.1
Sudachi Riverside 9/5/2006 10 28.7 2.9 31.3 3.1 0.9 145.1 14.5 3.5 3.5 30.0 3.0 105.0 10.5 LIGHT GREEN 42.1 4.2 29.0 14.4 6.0 2.4
Sudachi Riverside 9/5/2006 10 37.0 3.7 39.3 3.9 0.9 298.5 29.9 3.5 3.5 23.0 2.3 99.0 9.9 LIGHT GREEN 101.6 10.2 34.0 10.4 6.0 1.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/7/2007 10 36.9 3.7 41.2 4.1 0.9 351.2 35.1 4.0 2.0 21.0 2.1 107.0 10.7 LIGHT GREEN 116.9 11.7 33.3 10.1 8.9 1.7
Sudachi Riverside 9/7/2007 10 30.0 3.0 34.6 3.5 0.9 197.1 19.7 4.0 2.5 22.0 2.2 134.0 13.4 LIGHT GREEN 51.5 5.2 26.1 9.7 7.4 1.3
Sudachi Riverside 9/23/2003 10 35.0 3.5 34.1 3.4 1.0 208.7 20.9 4.0 2.0 17.0 1.7 76.0 7.6 LT. YEL. GREEN 71.8 7.2 34.4 11.0 3.5 3.2
Sudachi Riverside 9/23/2003 10 27.6 2.8 33.0 3.3 0.8 172.1 17.2 4.0 2.0 13.0 1.3 67.0 6.7 LIGHT GREEN 61.3 6.1 35.6 11.2 3.2 3.5
Sudachi Riverside 9/20/2004 10 30.4 3.0 34.7 3.5 0.9 203.2 20.3 4.5 2.0 19.0 1.9 95.0 9.5 LIGHT GRN.-YEL. 73.2 7.3 36.0 11.1 3.5 3.2
Sudachi Riverside 9/20/2004 10 35.5 3.6 38.6 3.9 0.9 294.2 29.4 4.0 2.0 20.0 2.0 106.0 10.6 LIGHT GRN.-YEL. 103.7 10.4 35.2 9.3 3.5 2.7
Sudachi Riverside 9/19/2005 10 35.8 3.6 40.5 4.1 0.9 326.2 32.6 4.5 2.5 16.0 1.6 87.0 8.7 YELLOW GREEN 120.8 12.1 37.0 10.5 5.9 1.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/19/2005 10 33.0 3.3 38.7 3.9 0.9 270.2 27.0 4.0 3.0 15.0 1.5 88.0 8.8 YELLOW GREEN 98.3 9.8 36.4 10.4 5.7 1.8
Sudachi Riverside 9/18/2006 10 28.7 2.9 31.6 3.2 0.9 145.7 14.6 4.0 3.5 23.0 2.3 109.0 10.9 LIGHT GREEN 42.7 4.3 29.3 15.1 5.7 2.6
Sudachi Riverside 9/18/2006 10 35.9 3.6 38.2 3.8 0.9 266.2 26.6 3.5 3.5 23.0 2.3 78.0 7.8 YELLOW GREEN 78.1 7.8 29.3 10.9 5.7 1.9
Sudachi Riverside 9/17/2007 10 33.4 3.3 36.9 3.7 0.9 245.2 24.5 4.0 2.0 21.0 2.1 105.0 10.5 GREEN 77.3 7.7 31.5 10.2 5.4 1.9
Sudachi Riverside 9/17/2007 10 32.6 3.3 37.5 3.8 0.9 204.9 20.5 4.0 2.0 20.0 2.0 107.0 10.7 GREEN 66.3 6.6 32.4 9.5 6.9 1.4
Sudachi Riverside 10/8/2003 10 36.7 3.7 41.4 4.1 0.9 326.4 32.6 4.0 2.0 24.0 2.4 76.0 7.6 LT. GR.- DK. YEL. 105.4 10.5 32.3 10.5 3.2 3.3
Sudachi Riverside 10/8/2003 10 32.3 3.2 36.6 3.7 0.9 239.6 24.0 4.0 2.0 20.0 2.0 62.0 6.2 LT. GR.- DK. YEL. 80.8 8.1 33.7 10.9 3.0 3.7
Sudachi Riverside 10/4/2004 10 30.5 3.1 35.3 3.5 0.9 217.9 21.8 5.0 1.0 16.5 1.7 81.0 8.1 LIGHT GRN.-YEL. 74.9 7.5 34.4 11.5 2.9 4.0
Sudachi Riverside 10/4/2004 10 38.8 3.9 42.2 4.2 0.9 393.7 39.4 4.0 2.0 19.0 1.9 95.0 9.5 LIGHT GRN.-YEL. 149.0 14.9 37.8 9.8 4.1 2.4
Sudachi Riverside 10/3/2005 10 34.5 3.5 40.4 4.0 0.9 321.2 32.1 4.5 3.0 17.5 1.8 53.0 5.3 LIGHT GREEN 120.4 12.0 37.5 9.7 6.1 1.6
Sudachi Riverside 10/3/2005 10 35.4 3.5 42.4 4.2 0.8 345.7 34.6 4.5 3.0 23.0 2.3 67.0 6.7 LIGHT GREEN 117.9 11.8 34.1 12.2 4.7 2.6
Sudachi Riverside 10/2/2006 10 27.6 2.8 30.1 3.0 0.9 126.1 12.6 3.5 3.0 18.0 1.8 93.0 9.3 GREEN 33.0 3.3 26.2 15.4 6.7 2.3
Sudachi Riverside 10/2/2006 10 34.8 3.5 37.9 3.8 0.9 273.4 27.3 3.5 3.0 16.0 1.6 94.0 9.4 YELLOW GREEN 80.2 8.0 29.3 10.5 6.1 1.7
Sudachi Riverside 10/1/2007 10 38.4 3.8 44.5 4.5 0.9 392.9 39.3 4.0 3.0 16.0 1.6 97.0 9.7 YELLOW GREEN 134.7 13.5 34.3 19.2 5.3 1.9
Sudachi Riverside 10/1/2007 10 31.7 3.2 35.3 3.5 0.9 201.5 20.2 4.0 3.0 11.0 1.1 107.0 10.7 YELLOW GREEN 68.4 6.8 33.9 19.5 5.3 1.7
Sudachi Riverside 10/21/2003 10 35.1 3.5 38.3 3.8 0.9 289.5 29.0 4.5 2.0 12.0 1.2 59.0 5.9 LIGHT GREEN 138.1 13.8 47.7 10.9 5.4 2.0
Sudachi Riverside 10/21/2003 10 31.4 3.1 36.7 3.7 0.9 256.1 25.6 5.0 2.0 16.0 1.6 75.0 7.5 YELLOW GREEN 113.3 11.3 44.2 11.0 6.2 1.8
Sudachi Riverside 10/18/2004 10 33.8 3.4 39.9 4.0 0.8 307.1 30.7 5.0 1.5 24.0 2.4 93.0 9.3 GRN. YELLOW 120.9 12.1 39.4 11.3 2.9 4.0
Sudachi Riverside 10/18/2004 10 42.7 4.3 47.7 4.8 0.9 534.0 53.4 4.5 2.0 24.0 2.4 89.0 8.9 GRN. YELLOW 182.4 18.2 34.2 9.0 2.9 3.1
Sudachi Riverside 10/19/2005 10 41.6 4.2 46.1 4.6 0.9 473.1 47.3 7.0 3.0 22.0 2.2 86.0 8.6 BR. YELLOW 225.1 22.5 47.6 10.9 5.0 2.1
Sudachi Riverside 10/19/2005 10 36.4 3.6 43.0 4.3 0.8 354.5 35.5 7.0 3.0 25.0 2.5 102.0 10.2 BR. YELLOW 144.4 14.4 40.7 NA NA NA
Sudachi Riverside 11/12/2003 10 38.5 3.9 43.3 4.3 0.9 399.2 39.9 5.0 2.5 21.0 2.1 109.0 10.9 YELLOW GREEN 152.6 15.3 38.2 11.0 4.8 2.3
Sudachi Riverside 11/12/2003 10 32.2 3.2 38.0 3.8 0.8 270.2 27.0 7.0 2.5 22.0 2.2 79.0 7.9 YELLOW GREEN 108.0 10.8 40.0 11.5 6.2 1.9

 

 


 

 

                     


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