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Silverhill Satsuma mandarin

Citrus unshiu Marcovitch

CRC 4072

PI 654860

VI 603

 

SILVERSILVER

Photos by Toni Siebert, CVC. 6 year old tree on Carrizo. Photo rights.

  

Source: Received as budwood from A. Harty, New Zealand.

 

Parentage/origins: Reported to be a nucellar seedling selection of Owari from a cross made by W.T. Swingle in 1908.

 

Rootstocks of accession: Carrizo citrange, C-35 citrange

 

Season of ripeness at Riverside: October to December

 

Notes and observations:

EMN: It appears to be almost identical with 'Frost Owari' (CRC 3178). 

"The Silverhill: A promising and apparently hardy strain of Satsuma orange", by Walter T. Swingle, January 3, 1931:  "In 1924, the temperature at Silverhill, Alabama, fell to 13 degrees on January 6, and to 14 degrees on January 7. The young trees of No. 7272 were defoliated but otherwise uninjured and by May of that year were fully leafed out and in good condition. Two freezes occurred in 1928, the lowest temperatures being 15 degrees on January 2 and 3, but little if any injury was sustained by these false hybrid trees beyond partial defoliation. Finally, in December, 1929, and January, 1930, all the trees (by this time of larger size and in full bearing) went through a disastrous series of freezes, with temperatures falling to 20 degrees on December 3, to 21 degrees on December 4, to 18 degrees on December 20, to 21 degrees on December 21, and to 19 degrees on December 24, followed after January 1, by warm weather for about two weeks. Then, on January 19, the temperature dropped to 16 degrees. The last severe freeze, following warm growing weather, caused great injury to ordinary Satsuma trees in this part of Alabama, but the false hybrid No. 7272 showed no injury beyond defoliation except in the case of a few trees that had been scale-infested and which were in a weakened condition when the freeze hit them.

       Ordinary Owari Satsuma trees growing alongside in the field and planted at the same time were severely injured by all of the freezes mentioned, so there can be no doubt that this false-hybrid is distinctly hardier than the ordinary Satusma varieties.

       Since the hardiness of this false hybrid (CPB No. 7272) was first brought clearly to light at Silverhill, Alabama, it is proposed to name it the Silverhill Satsuma.

       The Silverhill Satsuma produces fruit of the same size and appearance as that of the Owari variety. The fruit ripens possibly a few days earlier, but on the other hand, keeps rather better than the Owari. However, it can be picked, sized, packed and marketed along with the main crop of the Owari without difficulity. The Silverhill tree shows an upright habit of growth when young, in contrast with the more drooping habit of the Owari. It makes a large tree, capable of carrying a large crop, when in full bearing.

        The Silverhill Satsuma tree grows faster than the Owari Satsuma, is rather more subject to the attacks of the scab fungus, Sphaceloma fawcetti, Jenkins, and is also somewhat later in coming into full bearing than Owari. Instead of beginning to fruit at four years of age, as the Owari does, the Silverhill trees were about six years old before they produced a crop. The susceptibility to scab resulting from rank vegetative growth, probably contributes to this delayed fruiting, and effective control of scab, secured by one of two additional sprayings with Bordeaux minture, may perhaps result in earlier fruit production.

       Irrespective of the drawbacks noted, it is believed that on account of its hardiness, the Silverhill Satsuma is promising enough to warrant its being tested on a small scale by the Satsuma growers of the Gulf Coast region."

Description from The Citrus Industry Vol. 1 (1967):

"Fruit medium in size, slightly more oblate than most; rind relatively thin and smooth; seedless.  Juice abundant; sugars high and acid low (hence very sweet); quality excellent; stores well.  Season of maturity early (November).
      Tree very vigorous (for satsuma), more upright than most others; productive; markedly cold-resistant.
      Silverhill is a nucellar seedling selection of Owari from a cross made by W. T. Swingle of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Florida about 1908.  The variety was named and introduced about 1931.  In collections in California, it is indistinguishable from the Frost Owari derived at the Citrus Research Center, Riverside, California, and almost certainly they are identical.  They constitute what are considered to be the best clones currently available in the United States.
      Silverhill has been tested in Japan, where the above characterization was taken to permit direct comparison with other varieties.  It is recommended for planting in Japan as a promising, early shipping variety of Unshû.
      Another nucellar selection, which so closely resembles Silverhill that it is virtually indistinguishable, is Tanikawa Unshû, which originated as a nucellar seedling in the breeding program of the Horticultural Research Station at Okitsu about 1920 and was named for its originator, T. Tanikawa.  The only differences reported are a somewhat lower average sugar content in the fruit and slightly higher average yield to date.  Like Silverhill, it is recommended as an early shipping variety.
"

 

Availability: Commercially available in California through the Citrus Clonal Protection Program.

USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network page for Silverhill Satsuma mandarin

CVC Fruit Quality Data for Silverhill Satsuma mandarin:

(New format sorted by Julian date from Jan 1)

CULTIVAR LOCATION DATE JULIAN DATE Mean SSC Citric acid (%) SSC/TA # FRUIT LENGTH  AVG. LENGTH  WIDTH AVG. WIDTH L/W WEIGHT AVG. WT. COLOR TEXTURE RIND SEEDS AVG. SEEDS INTERIOR  JUICE WT.  % JUICE
Silverhill Lindcove 9/28/2009 271 8.35 1.10 7.57 10 61.20 6.12 66.70 6.67 0.92 1379.40 137.94 3.20 3.50 48.00 2.00 0.20 5 MED OR, 5 LT OR 592.50 42.95
Silverhill Lindcove 9/28/2009 271 9.65 1.17 8.30 10 51.30 5.13 58.90 5.89 0.87 970.80 97.08 3.80 3.00 33.00 1.00 0.10 10 LT OR 427.50 44.04
Silverhill Lindcove 9/28/2009 271 7.55 1.08 6.98 10 54.30 5.43 59.50 5.95 0.91 1005.90 100.59 3.70 4.00 37.00 4.00 0.40 10 LT OR 409.70 40.73
Silverhill Lindcove 9/29/2008 273 8.00 1.68 4.73 10 61.80 6.18 67.00 6.70 0.92 1285.30 128.53 3.40 3.00 36.00 1.00 0.10 PALE YEL. OR. 630.70 49.07
Silverhill Lindcove 9/29/2008 273 8.60 1.34 6.46 10 53.80 5.38 59.10 5.91 0.91 968.80 96.88 3.70 1.50 37.00 3.00 0.30 PALE ORANGE 437.30 45.14
Silverhill Lindcove 10/2/2006 275 8.80 1.50 5.87 10 58.70 5.87 67.90 6.79 0.86 1349.00 134.90 3.00 5.00 49.00 0.00 0.00 ORANGE 517.20 38.34
Silverhill Lindcove 10/2/2006 275 9.80 1.36 7.19 10 56.00 5.60 67.20 6.72 0.83 1283.00 128.30 3.00 4.50 44.50 2.00 0.20 ORANGE 527.40 41.11
Silverhill Lindcove 10/6/2005 279 4.10 0.76 5.45 10 51.80 5.18 61.20 6.12 0.85 1030.00 103.00 3.50 3.00 31.00 1.00 0.10 ORANGE 497.20 48.27
Silverhill Lindcove 10/6/2005 279 8.00 1.42 5.65 10 51.30 5.13 59.90 5.99 0.86 955.70 95.57 3.00 3.00 32.00 15.00 1.50 ORANGE 446.70 46.74
Silverhill Lindcove 10/10/2007 283 8.20 1.31 6.23 10 60.30 6.03 63.00 6.30 0.96 1294.70 129.47 4.00 3.50 44.00 9.00 0.90 BRIGHT ORANGE 513.80 39.68
Silverhill Lindcove 10/10/2007 283 9.60 1.09 8.79 10 57.30 5.73 60.50 6.05 0.95 1132.00 113.20 4.00 2.00 45.00 21.00 2.10 BRIGHT ORANGE 480.50 42.45
Silverhill Lindcove 10/17/2006 290 10.30 0.99 10.27 10 55.80 5.58 67.30 6.73 0.83 1355.90 135.59 3.00 4.50 56.00 1.00 0.10 BRIGHT ORANGE 575.50 42.44
Silverhill Lindcove 10/17/2006 290 7.00 0.76 9.02 10 53.30 5.33 65.00 6.50 0.82 1197.20 119.72 3.00 4.50 39.00 1.00 0.10 BRIGHT ORANGE 601.70 50.26
Silverhill Lindcove 10/19/2009 292 7.95 1.03 7.74 10 62.50 6.25 69.00 6.90 0.91 1453.60 145.36 4.50 6.00 45.00 0.00 0.00 10 MED OR 626.10 43.07
Silverhill Lindcove 10/19/2009 292 7.95 0.83 9.68 10 57.80 5.78 62.70 6.27 0.92 1132.10 113.21 4.00 4.00 41.00 2.00 0.20 10 MED OR 506.80 44.77
Silverhill Lindcove 10/19/2009 292 9.65 1.10 8.75 10 56.90 5.69 63.40 6.34 0.90 1155.40 115.54 4.50 3.50 45.00 34.00 3.40 10 MED OR 517.00 44.75
Silverhill Lindcove 10/20/2005 293 7.50 1.02 7.40 10 55.70 5.57 65.00 6.50 0.86 1250.70 125.07 4.00 5.00 36.00 9.00 0.90 MED. ORANGE 597.80 47.80
Silverhill Lindcove 10/20/2005 293 8.30 1.12 7.44 10 53.40 5.34 62.40 6.24 0.86 1096.20 109.62 4.00 5.00 35.00 7.00 0.70 MED. ORANGE 526.50 48.03
Silverhill Lindcove 10/20/2008 294 7.00 0.67 10.42 10 65.40 6.54 75.30 7.53 0.87 1825.00 182.50 3.50 4.00 41.00 16.00 1.60 BRIGHT ORANGE 711.10 38.96
Silverhill Lindcove 10/20/2008 294 8.90 0.97 8.59 10 61.40 6.14 66.40 6.64 0.92 1364.50 136.45 3.90 3.00 36.00 6.00 0.60 BRIGHT ORANGE 575.10 42.15
Silverhill Lindcove 10/29/2007 302 8.10 0.96 8.47 10 59.30 5.93 68.40 6.84 0.87 1310.70 131.07 5.00 4.00 38.00 6.00 0.60 BRIGHT ORANGE 550.90 42.03
Silverhill Lindcove 10/29/2007 302 10.10 0.98 10.21 10 53.70 5.37 60.50 6.05 0.89 958.20 95.82 5.50 3.00 38.00 14.00 1.40 BRIGHT ORANGE 417.30 43.55
Silverhill Lindcove 11/11/2009 315 9.45 0.79 11.86 10 59.40 5.94 68.60 6.86 0.87 1423.60 142.36 5.40 3.50 48.00 0.00 0.00 10 MED OR 588.20 41.32
Silverhill Lindcove 11/11/2009 315 10.20 0.79 12.95 10 54.80 5.48 63.60 6.36 0.86 1103.90 110.39 5.60 3.00 44.00 4.00 0.40 10 MED OR 519.70 47.08
Silverhill Lindcove 11/10/2008 315 9.70 0.86 11.25 10 71.20 7.12 82.20 8.22 0.87 2256.00 225.60 4.20 4.50 51.00 4.00 0.40 ORANGE 791.10 35.07
Silverhill Lindcove 11/10/2008 315 9.80 0.88 11.13 10 61.50 6.15 70.20 7.02 0.88 1494.80 149.48 4.90 3.00 40.00 6.00 0.60 BRIGHT ORANGE 656.70 43.93
Silverhill Lindcove 11/15/2007 319 8.30 0.72 11.60 10 67.00 6.70 73.50 7.35 0.91 1639.50 163.95 5.00 4.00 69.00 13.00 1.30 BRIGHT ORANGE 531.10 32.39
Silverhill Lindcove 11/15/2007 319 10.50 0.73 14.45 10 62.00 6.20 70.00 7.00 0.89 1368.60 136.86 10.50 3.00 54.00 15.00 1.50 BRIGHT ORANGE 455.80 33.30
Silverhill Lindcove 11/16/2006 320 9.40 0.87 10.80 10 53.40 5.34 69.20 6.92 0.77 1244.30 124.43 7.00 3.50 45.00 0.00 0.00 BRIGHT ORANGE 489.40 39.33
Silverhill Lindcove 11/16/2006 320 9.90 0.85 11.61 10 53.40 5.34 68.50 6.85 0.78 1235.40 123.54 6.50 3.00 44.00 4.00 0.40 BRIGHT ORANGE 519.30 42.03
Silverhill Lindcove 11/18/2005 322 8.70 0.72 12.07 10 57.60 5.76 70.20 7.02 0.82 1439.70 143.97 6.00 3.00 40.00 11.00 1.10 MED. ORANGE 628.80 43.68
Silverhill Lindcove 11/18/2005 322 9.40 0.81 11.66 10 54.40 5.44 66.00 6.60 0.82 1201.70 120.17 7.00 3.00 34.00 15.00 1.50 MED. ORANGE 557.80 46.42
Silverhill Riverside 9/20/2004 264 8.60 1.64 5.25 10 52.80 5.28 56.60 5.66 0.93 870.70 87.07 3.50 3.00 36.00 10.00 1.00 LIGHT ORANGE 376.70 43.26
Silverhill Riverside 9/20/2004 264 8.20 1.43 5.72 10 52.30 5.23 57.90 5.79 0.90 892.00 89.20 3.50 3.00 28.00 6.00 0.60 LIGHT ORANGE 392.50 44.00
Silverhill Riverside 9/25/2009 268 9.65 1.39 6.89 10 42.90 4.29 50.00 5.00 0.86 580.90 58.09 3.70 1.00 25.00 8.00 0.80 10 LT OR 243.00 41.83
Silverhill Riverside 9/25/2009 268 7.30 0.69 10.63 10 50.20 5.02 58.90 5.89 0.85 891.00 89.10 4.00 1.50 40.00 16.00 1.60 10 MED OR 327.50 36.76
Silverhill Riverside 9/29/2008 273 8.50 1.12 7.64 10 51.40 5.14 58.40 5.84 0.88 907.50 90.75 3.80 2.00 29.00 41.00 4.10 PALE ORANGE 430.90 47.48
Silverhill Riverside 9/29/2008 273 9.10 0.87 10.56 10 54.50 5.45 60.70 6.07 0.90 1065.60 106.56 3.90 3.00 38.00 35.00 3.50 ORANGE 486.00 45.61
Silverhill Riverside 10/1/2007 274 8.30 1.34 6.22 10 53.50 5.35 56.80 5.68 0.94 878.20 87.82 4.00 3.00 28.00 34.00 3.40 BRIGHT ORANGE 379.90 43.26
Silverhill Riverside 10/1/2007 274 8.80 1.21 7.25 10 53.10 5.31 58.10 5.81 0.91 892.50 89.25 4.00 3.50 33.00 33.00 3.30 BRIGHT ORANGE 335.70 37.61
Silverhill Riverside 10/2/2006 275 8.80 1.16 7.66 10 45.30 4.53 57.30 5.73 0.79 786.40 78.64 3.50 3.00 31.00 26.00 2.60 1 LT. OR. & 9 OR. 419.10 53.29
Silverhill Riverside 10/2/2006 275 8.30 1.01 8.22 10 51.60 5.16 64.00 6.40 0.81 1100.00 110.00 3.00 3.50 42.00 6.00 0.60 ORANGE 509.50 46.32
Silverhill Riverside 10/3/2005 276 9.40 1.05 8.98 10 46.30 4.63 59.70 5.97 0.78 865.20 86.52 3.50 3.00 34.00 5.00 0.50 BRIGHT ORANGE 411.50 47.56
Silverhill Riverside 10/3/2005 276 8.80 1.08 8.16 10 48.90 4.89 69.40 6.94 0.70 901.30 90.13 3.00 3.00 30.00 28.00 2.80 BRIGHT ORANGE 408.50 45.32
Silverhill Riverside 10/19/2008 293 9.35 1.16 8.00 10 44.60 4.46 52.20 5.22 0.85 664.20 66.42 4.10 1.50 30.00 11.00 1.10 10 MED OR 308.40 46.43
Silverhill Riverside 10/19/2008 293 8.35 0.83 10.06 10 51.00 5.10 59.80 5.98 0.85 949.40 94.94 4.00 2.50 40.00 17.00 1.70 10 MED OR 420.80 44.32
Silverhill Riverside 10/20/2008 294 8.30 1.02 8.13 10 54.50 5.45 65.50 6.55 0.83 1193.70 119.37 4.30 2.00 31.00 54.00 5.40 BRIGHT ORANGE 562.60 47.13
Silverhill Riverside 10/20/2008 294 8.60 0.97 8.85 10 60.50 6.05 65.10 6.51 0.93 1240.50 124.05 3.00 2.00 32.00 31.00 3.10 BRIGHT ORANGE 512.80 41.34
Silverhill Riverside 10/22/2007 295 9.20 1.00 9.26 10 50.40 5.04 59.10 5.91 0.85 922.20 92.22 5.00 1.00 25.00 35.00 3.50 BRIGHT ORANGE 395.30 42.86
Silverhill Riverside 10/22/2007 295 9.60 0.92 10.41 10 52.10 5.21 58.90 5.89 0.88 893.60 89.36 4.50 1.50 37.00 37.00 3.70 BRIGHT ORANGE 344.80 38.59
Silverhill Riverside 10/23/2006 296 7.30 0.52 13.90 10 44.60 4.46 59.10 5.91 0.75 889.50 88.95 4.50 2.00 31.00 13.00 1.30 BRIGHT ORANGE 490.80 55.18
Silverhill Riverside 10/23/2006 296 6.40 0.51 12.58 10 49.20 4.92 65.30 6.53 0.75 1121.60 112.16 4.50 3.00 35.00 8.00 0.80 BRIGHT ORANGE 557.70 49.72
Silverhill Riverside 10/24/2005 297 9.70 0.82 11.94 10 46.40 4.64 61.40 6.14 0.76 911.10 91.11 5.00 3.00 36.00 26.00 2.60 BRIGHT ORANGE 383.40 42.08
Silverhill Riverside 10/24/2005 297 7.60 0.70 10.93 10 50.80 5.08 64.40 6.44 0.79 1075.60 107.56 5.00 2.00 38.00 3.00 0.30 BRIGHT ORANGE 470.80 43.77
Silverhill Riverside 10/25/2004 299 8.50 0.88 9.66 10 58.30 5.83 67.00 6.70 0.87 1291.00 129.10 4.50 2.00 40.00 14.00 1.40 BRIGHT ORANGE 575.40 44.57
Silverhill Riverside 10/25/2004 299 8.20 1.08 7.67 10 63.00 6.30 72.00 7.20 0.88 1500.70 150.07 4.50 2.50 51.00 13.00 1.30 BRIGHT ORANGE 577.70 38.50
Silverhill Riverside 11/9/2009 313 10.50 0.95 11.08 10 45.00 4.50 55.60 5.56 0.81 735.50 73.55 5.00 2.50 35.00 21.00 2.10 10 MED OR 320.20 43.54
Silverhill Riverside 11/9/2009 313 9.55 0.82 11.63 10 51.40 5.14 61.50 6.15 0.84 926.70 92.67 5.00 3.00 40.00 20.00 2.00 10 MED OR 377.40 40.73
Silverhill Riverside 11/10/2008 315 9.70 0.70 13.78 10 58.20 5.82 68.20 6.82 0.85 1352.00 135.20 5.20 1.50 34.00 44.00 4.40 BRIGHT ORANGE 593.90 43.93
Silverhill Riverside 11/10/2008 315 10.50 0.72 14.60 10 62.20 6.22 62.20 6.22 1.00 1429.70 142.97 3.60 3.00 40.00 33.00 3.30 BRIGHT ORANGE 625.70 43.76
Silverhill Riverside 11/13/2006 317 9.00 0.52 17.34 10 45.70 4.57 61.50 6.15 0.74 849.90 84.99 6.00 3.00 31.00 12.00 1.20 BRIGHT ORANGE 418.70 49.26
Silverhill Riverside 11/13/2006 317 8.70 0.64 13.58 10 59.10 5.91 79.00 7.90 0.75 1695.90 169.59 5.00 3.50 40.00 20.00 2.00 BRIGHT ORANGE 707.00 41.69
Silverhill Riverside 11/13/2007 317 9.20 0.70 13.16 10 58.20 5.82 66.30 6.63 0.88 1245.90 124.59 5.50 3.00 35.00 38.00 3.80 BRIGHT ORANGE 548.10 43.99
Silverhill Riverside 11/13/2007 317 10.20 0.69 14.88 10 61.10 6.11 69.30 6.93 0.88 1007.10 100.71 5.50 3.00 43.00 35.00 3.50 BRIGHT ORANGE 387.00 38.43
Silverhill Riverside 11/14/2005 318 10.60 0.86 15.94 10 49.90 4.99 69.50 6.95 0.72 1129.20 112.92 9.50 2.50 41.00 21.00 2.10 BRIGHT ORANGE 468.80 41.52
Silverhill Riverside 11/14/2005 318 9.10 0.67 13.32 10 54.30 5.43 71.90 7.19 0.76 1335.40 133.54 9.50 2.50 48.00 12.00 1.20 BRIGHT ORANGE 557.70 41.76
Silverhill Riverside 11/15/2004 320 9.30 0.61 15.24 10 63.50 6.35 73.90 7.39 0.86 1636.00 163.60 10.50 3.00 45.00 7.00 0.70 BRIGHT ORANGE 724.60 44.29
Silverhill Riverside 11/15/2004 320 10.10 0.70 14.33 10 65.70 6.57 76.70 7.67 0.86 1685.60 168.56 11.00 3.50 53.00 8.00 0.80 BRIGHT ORANGE 651.00 38.62

 

 

 

 


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