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Kabosu (Kabusu) papeda hybrid

Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka

CRC 3943

PI 539674

VI 452

KABOSUKABOSUKABOSU

Photos by Toni Siebert, CVC. Photo rights.

 

KABOSUKABOSU

Photos by David Karp, Norco, Ca, 11/14/2002. Photo rights.

Source: Received as seed by Dr. Bill Bitters from Japan, 1984.

 

Parentage/origins: Parents unknown. Believed to be a hybrid of papeda and sour orange. From China, but most popular in Japan.

 

Rootstocks of accession: Carrizo citrange

 

Season of ripeness at Riverside: September to October

 

Notes and observations:

11/2009, TJS: "Kabosu is said to have originated as a chance seedling that became established in the Oita Prefecture of Japan, located on the northeastern coast of the island of Kyüshü (Tanaka, 1981). There are many uses for the fruits, the most popular being in the creation of vinegars and marmalades, as a substitute for lemon on fish, and in soups, and for decorative purposes (Bitters, 1963). Bitters also described the use of the dried peel of Kabosu being burned as a mosquito repellant. The trees also make a useful dooryard ornamental.
                 Kabosu fruit was also formally evaluated in September and October from 2003 through 2007 at Riverside, Calif. Slightly larger than Yuzu, the average fruit size has a mean width of 5.3 cm (2.1 inches) and a height of 5.2 cm (2.0 inches), giving an average height-to-width aspect ratio of 0.98 and a more rounded shaped. Kabosu has a mean weight per fruit of 71.2 grams (2.51 ounces). Color break for Kabosu occurs between the first and third week of September. The rind texture is slightly pebbly with a mean thickness of 4.2 mm (.17 inches). The number of seeds per fruit averages 17.2, higher than Sudachi, but lower than Yuzu. The mean juice weight is 20.2 grams (0.71 ounces) and the average juice content is 28.2%, slightly higher than Yuzu, but lower than Sudachi. The juice weight and juice content increased during the sampling dates. The internal flesh color of Kabosu in the green stage ranges from light-yellow to dark-yellow. Kabosu tends to be the least acidic of the three acid types with an average of 3.2% citric acid.
                Kabosu trees have a dense, spreading habit of moderate vigor. Trees that are 20 years old on Carrizo and C-35 citrange rootstocks are approximately 10 feet tall with no indications of rootstock-scion incompatibility. Thorns up to 5 mm in length are present in each leaf axil, but not present on every branch. Leaves are elliptical in shape, with a medium-winged petiole."

8/1989, WPB: Original import had tristeza, eliminated by thermotherapy. Kabosu is grown on a small commercial scale and is used as a condiment like lemon juice would be used here in California.

12/19/2010, RRK: 'Kabosu' originated as a spontaneous mutation of standard 'Yuzu' in the Oita Prefecture of Japan. The green-stage fruits have been used as acid citrus for flavoring in cooking and this has resulted in the creation of a small local citrus industry. RAPD markers were able to distinguish 'Kabosu' from various other 'Yuzu'-like fruits but did not provide any further insights into its origins.

Description from The Citrus Industry Vol. 1 (1967):

"This variety is reported to be virtually indistinguishable from Zadaidai except that the calyx is normal and not large, fleshy, and distinctive.
      Both Zadaidai and Kabusu are grown primarily as ornamentals in Japan and the fruits are used for decorative purposes and in the preparation of marmalade and vinegar."

Availability: Not commercially available in California.

USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network page for Kabosu papeda hybrid

 

Bibliography:

"Molecular characterization and genetic diversity among Japanese acid citrus (Citrus spp.) based on RAPD markers", Abkenar, A., and Isshiki, S., Journal of Horticulture Science and Biotechnology, 2003, (78) 1, pgs. 108-112.

"Deliciously ancient East Asian acid citrus: Yuzu, Sudachi and Kabosu", Siebert, T., and Kahn, T., Fruit Gardener, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2009, pgs 2-8.

CVC Fruit Quality Data for Kabosu papeda hybrid:

(Old format)

CULTIVAR SAMPLE LOCATION DATE  NUMBER OF FRUIT PER SAMPLE TOTAL LENGTH PER SAMPLE (cm) MEAN LENGTH PER FRUIT (cm) TOTAL WIDTH PER SAMPLE (cm) MEAN WIDTH PER FRUIT (cm) LENGTH /WIDTH RATIO TOTAL WT PER SAMPLE (grams) MEAN WEIGHT PER FRUIT (grams) EXTERNAL COLOR BASED ON COLOR CHART TEXTURE BASED ON CHART TOTAL RIND THICKNESS PER SAMPLE (mm) MEAN RIND THICKNESS PER FRUIT (mm) TOTAL SEEDS PER SAMPLE MEAN SEED NUMBER PER FRUIT INTERIOR COLOR DESCRIPTION TOTAL JUICE WT. PER SAMPLE (grams) MEAN JUICE WEIGHT PER FRUIT (grams) % JUICE TSS (TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS) % ACID (BASED ON CITRIC ACID) RATIO (TSS / % ACID) 
Kabosu Riverside 9/8/2003 10 41.5 4.2 43.3 4.3 1.0 423.9 42.4 3.5 2.0 31.0 3.1 165.0 16.5 LT. GR. YEL. 108.7 10.9 25.6 10.3 2.8 3.7
Kabosu Riverside 9/8/2003 10 42.6 4.3 45.8 4.6 0.9 480.4 48.0 3.5 2.0 32.0 3.2 155.0 15.5 LT. GR. YEL. 118.0 11.8 24.6 10.9 3.0 3.7
Kabosu Riverside 9/7/2004 10 54.9 5.5 54.3 5.4 1.0 772.5 77.3 4.0 2.0 47.0 4.7 152.0 15.2 LT. GR. YEL. 179.7 18.0 23.3 9.3 2.7 3.4
Kabosu Riverside 9/7/2004 10 45.7 4.6 46.1 4.6 1.0 478.8 47.9 4.0 2.0 38.0 3.8 138.0 13.8 MED. YELLOW 104.0 10.4 21.7 9.9 2.6 3.8
Kabosu Riverside 9/6/2005 10 47.3 4.7 50.3 5.0 0.9 591.1 59.1 4.0 2.5 40.0 4.0 210.0 21.0 LT. GREEN 134.6 13.5 22.8 9.7 3.6 2.7
Kabosu Riverside 9/6/2005 10 47.4 4.7 49.8 5.0 1.0 583.2 58.3 4.0 2.0 34.0 3.4 218.0 21.8 LT. GREEN 142.4 14.2 24.4 9.3 3.4 2.7
Kabosu Riverside 9/5/2006 10 55.4 5.5 54.3 5.4 1.0 751.4 75.1 3.5 3.5 54.0 5.4 206.0 20.6 YELLOW 140.6 14.1 18.7 10.5 3.2 3.3
Kabosu Riverside 9/5/2006 10 52.0 5.2 50.9 5.1 1.0 632.9 63.3 3.5 3.0 45.0 4.5 178.0 17.8 YELLOW 162.9 16.3 25.7 10.9 3.5 3.1
Kabosu Riverside 9/7/2007 10 50.0 5.0 51.4 5.1 1.0 620.5 62.1 4.0 3.0 42.0 4.2 209.0 20.9 YELLOW 151.6 15.2 24.4 9.2 3.8 2.4
Kabosu Riverside 9/7/2007 10 48.6 4.9 50.0 5.0 1.0 592.6 59.3 4.0 3.0 41.0 4.1 197.0 19.7 YELLOW 134.7 13.5 22.7 9.7 3.7 2.7
Kabosu Riverside 9/23/2003 10 45.6 4.6 46.8 4.7 1.0 516.0 51.6 4.0 2.5 39.0 3.9 143.0 14.3 LT. GR. YEL. 161.3 16.1 31.3 7.6 1.9 4.0
Kabosu Riverside 9/23/2003 10 42.0 4.2 44.5 4.5 0.9 441.1 44.1 4.0 2.0 40.0 4.0 128.0 12.8 LT. GR. YEL. 137.4 13.7 31.1 8.4 1.9 4.5
Kabosu Riverside 9/20/2004 10 62.5 6.3 59.0 5.9 1.1 988.6 98.9 4.5 3.5 52.0 5.2 174.0 17.4 PALE YELLOW 272.0 27.2 27.5 9.1 2.3 3.9
Kabosu Riverside 9/20/2004 10 52.1 5.2 51.0 5.1 1.0 655.5 65.6 4.5 4.0 44.0 4.4 196.0 19.6 PALE YELLOW 164.9 16.5 25.2 8.4 2.1 4.0
Kabosu Riverside 9/19/2005 10 50.0 5.0 52.6 5.3 1.0 668.5 66.9 4.0 2.5 39.0 3.9 201.0 20.1 YEL. GREEN 181.0 18.1 27.1 8.9 3.6 2.5
Kabosu Riverside 9/19/2005 10 49.3 4.9 51.2 5.1 1.0 625.7 62.6 4.0 2.5 35.0 3.5 198.0 19.8 YEL. GREEN 182.3 18.2 29.1 9.1 4.0 2.3
Kabosu Riverside 9/18/2006 10 58.7 5.9 58.5 5.9 1.0 931.4 93.1 3.5 3.5 52.0 5.2 229.0 22.9 LT. YELLOW 219.5 22.0 23.6 10.3 3.2 3.2
Kabosu Riverside 9/18/2006 10 55.2 5.5 53.1 5.3 1.0 726.5 72.7 3.5 3.5 47.0 4.7 154.0 15.4 LT. YELLOW 211.1 21.1 29.1 10.9 3.7 3.0
Kabosu Riverside 9/17/2007 10 49.8 5.0 52.0 5.2 1.0 641.1 64.1 3.5 3.0 41.0 4.1 198.0 19.8 YELLOW 146.5 14.7 22.9 9.8 3.6 2.8
Kabosu Riverside 9/17/2007 10 49.4 4.9 50.4 5.0 1.0 613.4 61.3 3.5 3.0 43.0 4.3 226.0 22.6 YELLOW 161.3 16.1 26.3 9.7 4.0 2.4
Kabosu Riverside 10/8/2003 10 51.8 5.2 53.5 5.4 1.0 744.8 74.5 4.0 3.0 39.0 3.9 154.0 15.4 DK. YELLOW 179.0 17.9 24.0 9.7 2.3 4.3
Kabosu Riverside 10/8/2003 10 46.3 4.6 47.2 4.7 1.0 557.4 55.7 4.5 3.0 43.0 4.3 147.0 14.7 DK. YELLOW 224.1 22.4 40.2 9.8 2.7 3.6
Kabosu Riverside 10/4/2004 10 60.6 6.1 58.4 5.8 1.0 949.8 95.0 4.5 2.5 51.0 5.1 153.0 15.3 YELLOW 276.1 27.6 29.1 9.0 2.4 3.8
Kabosu Riverside 10/4/2004 10 58.4 5.8 57.2 5.7 1.0 923.4 92.3 4.5 2.5 50.0 5.0 200.0 20.0 YELLOW 263.3 26.3 28.5 9.7 2.3 4.3
Kabosu Riverside 10/3/2005 10 49.8 5.0 53.6 5.4 0.9 727.6 72.8 4.5 3.0 39.0 3.9 106.0 10.6 LT. ORANGE 192.1 19.2 26.4 9.5 3.3 2.9
Kabosu Riverside 10/3/2005 10 49.4 4.9 53.3 5.3 0.9 733.4 73.3 4.5 3.0 36.0 3.6 119.0 11.9 LT. ORANGE 216.6 21.7 29.5 9.2 3.7 2.5
Kabosu Riverside 10/2/2006 10 59.2 5.9 58.3 5.8 1.0 940.6 94.1 3.5 4.0 49.0 4.9 237.0 23.7 YELLOW 195.7 19.6 20.8 9.0 3.4 2.7
Kabosu Riverside 10/2/2006 10 55.9 5.6 55.1 5.5 1.0 806.9 80.7 3.5 3.5 43.0 4.3 181.0 18.1 YELLOW 242.2 24.2 30.0 9.7 4.1 2.4
Kabosu Riverside 10/1/2007 10 49.0 4.9 49.3 4.9 1.0 569.4 56.9 4.5 3.0 28.0 2.8 147.0 14.7 YELLOW 166.8 16.7 29.3 16.5 4.6 2.0
Kabosu Riverside 10/1/2007 10 59.2 5.9 59.4 5.9 1.0 943.4 94.3 4.5 3.5 41.0 4.1 117.0 11.7 YELLOW 204.3 20.4 21.7 14.5 4.0 2.3
Kabosu Riverside 10/21/2003 10 48.3 4.8 50.1 5.0 1.0 616.8 61.7 4.3 3.0 35.0 3.5 167.0 16.7 PALE YELLOW 212.7 21.3 34.5 10.1 4.4 2.3
Kabosu Riverside 10/21/2003 10 49.2 4.9 52.1 5.2 0.9 718.8 71.9 4.0 3.0 38.0 3.8 211.0 21.1 PALE YELLOW 233.9 23.4 32.5 10.6 3.9 2.7
Kabosu Riverside 10/18/2004 10 64.9 6.5 63.8 6.4 1.0 1269.1 126.9 4.0 3.0 50.0 5.0 186.0 18.6 PALE YELLOW 387.7 38.8 30.5 9.0 2.1 4.4
Kabosu Riverside 10/18/2004 10 56.5 5.7 54.2 5.4 1.0 772.2 77.2 4.5 3.0 45.0 4.5 180.0 18.0 YELLOW 261.8 26.2 33.9 8.5 2.5 3.4
Kabosu Riverside 10/19/2005 10 49.9 5.0 52.5 5.3 1.0 701.7 70.2 3.0 4.5 38.0 3.8 124.0 12.4 MED. YELLOW 254.0 25.4 36.2 NA NA NA
Kabosu Riverside 10/19/2005 10 54.4 5.4 57.4 5.7 0.9 904.6 90.5 3.0 4.5 41.0 4.1 166.0 16.6 YELLOW 371.9 37.2 41.1 NA NA NA
Kabosu Riverside 11/12/2003 10 52.2 5.2 53.2 5.3 1.0 764.1 76.4 4.5 2.5 35.0 3.5 139.0 13.9 YELLOW 323.4 32.3 42.3 10.1 4.0 2.6
Kabosu Riverside 11/12/2003 10 50.6 5.1 51.9 5.2 1.0 685.9 68.6 4.5 2.5 42.0 4.2 123.0 12.3 YELLOW 235.1 23.5 34.3 10.4 3.9 2.7


 

 

                     


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